ผู้เขียน หัวข้อ: 10 New discover around the world  (อ่าน 46 ครั้ง)

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มีนาคม 19, 2017, 01:11:57 AM
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1. Speedy gene editing is being used in humans for the first time
CRISPR is a ground-breaking form of gene editing, and there are hopes that it could be used to help fight cancer. The procedure is being trialled in both China and the US, and aims to alter immune cells so that they are able to recognise cancer. A method is also being devised to shut off the CRISPR system once it’s done its job so it shouldn’t make any extra, unwanted genetic alterations.

2. The Earth’s core has its own jet stream
Satellites from the European Space Agency (ESA) have discovered a ‘jet stream’ deep inside the Earth. Lying 3,000 kilometres below the surface of Alaska and Siberia, the stream carries liquid metal half way around the planet at a speed of 40 kilometres a year. The 420-kilometre wide stream was found by three Swarm satellites during an ESA study on the Earth’s magnetic field.

3. Salamanders go the extra mile to find a mate
Small-mouthed salamanders travel almost nine kilometres on average in order to reproduce, risking death and dehydration. Scientists tested the amphibian’s endurance on small treadmills and found that smallmouthed salamanders were able to last four-times longer than those of a closely related group, which use cloning to reproduce. Some managed to walk on the treadmill for two hours, an impressive show of stamina similar to a human jogging 120 kilometres.

4. Next-gen air-con could beam heat into space
Radioactive cooling is an extremely efficient version of air conditioning. By using a thermal emitter, physicists radiated heat out from Earth and into space. The emitter was placed in a vacuum chamber and directed at a clear sky. After 30 minutes, the emitter temperature fell by 40 degrees Celsius. This method could be used in the future to help chill medicines

5. Monkeys would be able to talk if their brain structure was different
Research has found that macaques have vocal tracts capable of speech. X-rays of a macaque eating and yawning showed they have the anatomy to make vowel sounds but lack the brainpower to do so.

6. Moon colonists could live in lava tubes
Below the Moon’s surface lie huge caverns formed by dried up molten rock from ancient volcanoes. Up to five kilometres in diameter, these subterranean cavities could be used to house future colonies. The tubes were spotted after small variations in the Moon’s gravitational pull were noticed, and if colonised, could protect potential settlers from radiation, harsh temperatures and meteor strikes.

7. The brain actively filters out background noise
Known as the ‘cocktail party effect’, the brain uses selective hearing to concentrate on one conversation.
Auditory tests using electrodes measured the difference in brain activity when exposed to incomprehensible speech followed by clear conversation.

8. Ants are intelligent enough to use tools
Hungarian scientists supplied ants with honey and water and a range of tools in which to carry them back to their nest. After experimenting with each tool, the ants learned to use sponges and paper to best soak up the liquid and transport it home.

9. Time spent outside is good for your eyes
Recent reports suggest rising rates of nearsightedness in children are down to too much time being spent indoors. By concentrating on brightly lit close-up objects like ebooks and smartphones, children’s eyes don’t have the opportunity to focus on distant objects, possibly making the onset of myopia more rapid. Experts believe this can be effectively combated by spending more time outdoors.

10. Killifish have adapted to survive toxic pollution levels
A species of fish has managed to withstand water contaminated with industrial waste. Atlantic killifish cells mutated until the correct genetic combination effectively protected cells from the toxins. The fish subsequently became up to 8,000 times more resistant to the harmful substances. The killifish’s ability to quickly change its genes was the key to so many being able to survive.

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มีนาคม 19, 2017, 01:17:29 AM
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Five things to know about…FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE

1. She invented a chart
When writing her reports, Florence developed a form of pie chart, called a polar area diagram, to visually represent statistics on death rates in hospitals.

2. She was on the money
An image of Florence and her work in the Scutari hospital appeared on the reverse of £10 notes issued by the Bank of England between 1975 and 1994.

3. Nurses still celebrate her birthday
International Nurses Day falls on the 12 May every year, marking the anniversary of Florence’s birth and the important work nurses do all around the world.

4. She didn’t enjoy fame
After returning from the war, Florence used the pseudonym Miss Smith to avoid all of the media attention she was receiving as The Lady with the Lamp.

5. She had a pet owl
Nightingale once rescued a baby owl that had fallen from its nest. She named it Athena, trained it to bow and curtsy, and kept it in the pocket of her apron.

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มีนาคม 19, 2017, 01:22:55 AM
ตอบกลับ #2
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Why are there no square objects in space?

Large square and cubic objects don’t occur naturally in space as the effect of gravity tends to squeeze objects into spherical shapes. A planet forms by picking up surrounding dust, gas and debris – a process known as accretion. Gravity pulls this matter together towards the centre of the planet, and the most effective way for the matter to accommodate this pull is to form a sphere. Likewise, the strong gravitational pull created by a star’s dense core moulds the gas on its outer surface into a sphere. Angular objects do exist in space, such as broken fragments of rock resulting from collisions, but these would be unlikely to produce anything approximating a square or cube. The only naturally occurring cubes or squares are crystals such as pyrite or salt, although these are relatively small. Any larger square objects point to the work of humans – or possibly that of another intelligent life form.


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มีนาคม 19, 2017, 11:52:12 AM
ตอบกลับ #3
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5 FACT ABOUT The Edge of Seventeen
Growing up can have its awkward moments, and it certainly does for seventeen-yearold Nadine (Hailee Steinfeld) who has to learn to deal with her all-star older brother Darian (Blake Jenner) dating her best friend. With the help of a reluctant teacher (Woody Harrelson) and an unlikely friendship with a boy from school, she starts to realise that life doesn’t have to be so terrible.

1. The working title for this movie was ‘Besties’
2. This is Kelly Fremon Craig’s directorial debut
3. The film shares its title with a song of the same name by Stevie Nicks
4. Hayden Szeto who plays Erwin was the first actor to be cast and was actually 31 at the time of the film’s release.
5. Hailee Steinfeld received a Golden Globe nomination for her performance

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มีนาคม 25, 2017, 02:18:15 AM
ตอบกลับ #4
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10 New discover around the world
1. Asteroids can have rings too
Until now the only confirmed ring systems in space have been around planets – Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and
Neptune. But thanks to astronomers in Brazil, we now know that smaller bodies can also host rings. Chariklo is a centaur asteroid 250 kilometres (155 miles) across in the outer Solar System, and the orbiting debris was spotted as it transited in front of a star. The system is made up of two narrow rings, separated by nine kilometres (5.6 miles), and is thought to be the remnant of a mighty collision. Chariklo may even host its own small moon, but this has so far evaded detection.

2. Noses outsense our eyes
It’s long been believed that the average human hooter can distinguish in the region of 10,000 different smells, but new research suggests our noses are far more discerning than that. Cocktails of ten, 20 or 30 molecules were mixed from 128 different scents, like citrus and grass. Participants got three vials: two containing the same cocktail and the third with a mystery odour, and then asked to identify the latter. The instances of correct identification were extrapolated to account for all possible combinations to arrive at a
conservative figure of 1 trillion scents our noses can detect. This exceeds the number of colours our eyes can perceive (10 million), though we still fall short of the average dog, which can smell two to three times better than us.

3. Cutlery can add more flavour to our food
Until now, cutlery has been a means to an end to get food from A to B – from the plate to our mouths – but that’s about to change. Aromafork, made by Canadian innovator MOLECULE-R Flavors, features a capsule under the handle that houses a piece of absorbent paper. Prior to your meal, this paper can be soaked in over 20 different essences, from vanilla to wasabi, bringing a new flavour dimension to every
mouthful – proving we taste as much with our noses as we do with our tongues.

4. New eBikes have invisible engines
By scaling down the motor so it fits inside the wheel hub, an innovative electric bike is redefining twowheeled transport. As well as being greener than a traditional fuelpowered motorbike, a new storage
space (420 x 360 x 220 millimetres/16.5 x 14.2 x 8.7 inches) has been created on the FEDDZ scooter to hold anything from your rucksack to a stack of pizza boxes. There’s even a USB connection to power up your devices on the go.

5. Cowboys use physics to perform rope tricks
According to a French physicist, the secret to ‘trick roping’ like a rodeo pro is basic maths. Dr Pierre-Thomas Brun, from EPFL in Switzerland, asserts he has mastered one of the simpler rope tricks used by
cowboys, known as the ‘fl at loop’, by applying mathematical equations gleaned from other elastic materials like hair and textiles. Brun suggests the key is to use 70 per cent of the rope in the loop, move your hands at a low frequency and to roll the rope between your finger and thumb on each turn.

6. Moss can survive 1,500 years on ice
Some plants give up the ghost at the first hint of a frosty night, but others are made of far sterner stuff. In fact, moss taken from Antarctica’s permafrost has recently been reanimated after an estimated 1,530 years in the deep freeze. Samples were collected from banks of moss that build up over the short summers before being placed in an incubator at 17 degrees Celsius (63 degrees Fahrenheit). After three weeks, new shoots had appeared, opening up possibilities of cryogenically freezing other multicellular organisms.

7. Hubble is an artist
It might look like an abstract drawing you’d see hanging in an art gallery, but this shot was captured by the Hubble Space Telescope. Hubble uses a Fine Guidance System, comprising a series of gyroscopes to sense its position and a set of reaction wheels to alter its attitude. To allow for gyroscopic drift, another part of the system focuses on a fixed point in space, known as a ‘guide star’. Here, Hubble may have accidentally selected a ‘bad guide star’, like a binary system, confusing the tracking system, resulting in this
spaghetti-like tangle of multicoloured light streaks.

8. Contact lenses could help us see in the dark
Sandwiching a layer of superthin graphene into a contact lens might be the future of night-vision goggles,
according to scientists at the University of Michigan. While the incredible material, comprised of a single layer of carbon atoms in a honeycomb structure, is renowned for its strength, another quality makes graphene suited to seeing in the dark. Whenever a photon in any electromagnetic wavelength – from ultraviolet to infrared – strikes graphene, a number of electrons on its surface are agitated, generating an electric signal. These signals could be processed and converted into images, providing a view of what lies ahead, even when it’s pitch black.

9. Saturn’s top moon is making waves
Astronomers have spotted what they think are the first extraterrestrial waves ever seen, on Saturn’s largest satellite, Titan. But these waves are very different from what we’re used to seeing at the beach here on Earth. For one thing, the liquid isn’t water at all, but vast lakes of liquefied hydrocarbons like methane, mostly found around the moon’s north pole, while what looks like solid rock is largely ice. Studying
images captured by the Cassini space probe where sunlight reflected off the moon, scientists detected features consistent with waves, though the ripples only appear to be around two centimetres (0.8 inches) tall. These could be about to get a lot bigger, though, as wind speeds are on the rise with the changing seasons, potentially even leading to storm surges.

10. Narwhals have sensitive teeth
Sometimes called the ‘unicorns of the sea’, narwhals are immediately recognised for the spike on their head. Growing up to three metres (9.8 feet) long, these are not horns, but in fact a spiral tooth, which grows through their upper lip. Recent research suggests the tooth is a unique sensory organ used to
detect salinity. This is of great benefit in Arctic waters, as salt levels indicate the rate of sea-ice freezing and melting, helping them to avoid getting trapped below the ice.

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มีนาคม 25, 2017, 02:20:23 AM
ตอบกลับ #5
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Were Spartans really obsessed with fighting?
Spartan culture was largely centred on the development of their military, but they were also a deeply religious and cultural people who enjoyed music, dance, poetry, art and sporting events. The city of Sparta
housed prominent buildings, temples and a theatre. Spartan bronze products were of an extremely high quality and were viewed as valuable diplomatic gifts.

Spartan society gave women economical power and influence and girls received a public education and engaged in sports – all things unheard of in neighbouring Greek societies in 600 BCE. Historians know of four Spartan poets whose works were praised by critics throughout the world and the Spartans were known to regularly hold popular music and dance festivals.

It is impossible not to recognise the exceptional nature of Spartan military achievements, which is largely why other aspects of Spartan culture get overlooked. However after two costly wars in the late-eighth and early-seventh century BCE, the Spartans increasingly sought diplomatic means to solve conflicts

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